The Early Church (HI-550)
This course will trace the growth and development of Christianity from its earliest beginnings in the first century to the great councils of the fourth and fifth centuries, stopping en route to examine selected texts from the New Testament, early Christian and Roman documents, the writings of the Fathers and the earliest creeds, ranging from the Gospels and St. Paul to Ignatius, Justin, Origen, Basil, Augustine, and Nicea. The course will focus on emergent Christian thought, the nature of God and Christ, the Bible, Church and sacraments, sin and grace, the relation of church and state, and the Christian way of life, toward the goal of gaining keener insight into issues of religion and faith today.
Day, Time and Dates:
Wednesdays from 7 p.m. to 9:20 p.m., beginning September 13
Adjunct Professor of Biblical Studies
Thoughts on History, Church, and Us
- "There are many sheep without, many wolves within." --St. Augustine of Hippo
- "The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church." -- Tertullian
- "Do not be like those people who think they are inaugurating a new era, as if before they came along there had been nothing but emptiness or chaos. Before we came there were our parents, and they were the latest link of a long and sacred chain. The generations which went before us left such wonderful proofs of their noble victories in the cause of truth and goodness that we fear we may never equal them in merit and glory. It would be a meritorious thing for us all frankly to admit that we should still be very wretched indeed, and hardly out of the phase of barbarism, if the civilization of past centuries had not seen to our baptism." -- Pope John XXIII
- “I accented the historicity of the Church, showing that it does evolve and change through the centuries. If it freezes, it ceases to be alive. It needs to speak to the problems of the day.” -- Avery Dulles
- "Christian life is the life of Christ in man and man in Christ." -Romano Guardi
Books for Purchase
- Bible (New Oxford Annotated Bible recommended)
- Ehrman, Bart. After the New Testament: A Reader in Early Christianity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. [=Ehrman]
- Stark, Rodney. The Rise of Christianity. How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1997.[=Stark]
Additional Texts on Permanent Reserve
- Fitzmyer, Joseph, S. J. A Christological Catechism: New Testament Answers (Paulist) [=CC]
- Hazlett, Ian, ed. Early Christianity: Origins and Evolution to A.D. 600 (Abingdon) [=EC]
- McKinion, Steven, Life and Practice in the Early Church: A Documentary Reader (2001) [=L&P]
- Richardson, Cyril, ed. Early Christian Fathers. New York: Collier/ Macmillan, 1970.[= ECF]
- Wiles, Maurice and Santer, Mark, eds. Documents in Early Christian Thought(Cambridge University Press) [=W&S]
1. Weekly readings, class participation, regular attendance. Classroom exchange is as important as the reading. (Each absence = reduction of one letter attendance grade; consistent tardiness also reduces the grade. See instructor for makeup in case of an emergency). [1/5 of grade]
2. *One class report, chosen from the topics asterisked in the syllabus, presented orally to the class, and submitted in written form (5 type-written pages maximum) to the instructor:
a. Begin by explaining why this topic interested you.
b. The body of the report should consist of an orderly account of the topic, focusing on five to ten facts of interest to you and relevant to the interests of the class.
c. Conclude with an observation on how this topic illumines our understanding of the subject matter of this course (e.g., morally, historically, spiritually, literarily, personally).
d. Include a brief bibliography in the written version (including web sources, if used).
The grade will be based primarily on the written version (clarity, organization, thoughtfulness, and range of issues and applications considered) [1/5 of grade]
3. *One book review (see bibliography), presented orally to the class , and submitted in written form (5 type-written pages maximum) to the instructor. The reviewer is asked (a) to give a clear overview of the key points in the book and (b) to identify up to ten ideas he/she has found most helpful or informative. The reviewer is asked to prepare some "visuals" (hand-outs, chalk-board outlines, or overhead projector transparencies, etc.) to enhance communication with the group, and to present at least one issue for group discussion (maximum 5 pages). [1/5 of grade]
4. *A Final Project, due December 16. Notify instructor of your choice of topic by November 1, indicating some tentative bibliography and the question you plan to explore. The student has the choice of writing either on a standard research topic , or preparing an essay on “The Early Church in Contemporary perspective,” as a way of relating the substance of the course to the experience and interests of the student. Further guidelines for this latter option will be provided [2/5 of grade].
*All academic papers are to conform to conventional technical, grammatical and stylistic standards referred to in the Hartford Seminary General Guidelines for a Research Paper. The Hartford Seminary Grading Guidelines will be the standard of evaluation for work in the course
1. To provide an opportunity for reflecting critically on the diverse historical, social, economic, artistic, theological, economic, liturgical, religious, ecclesiastical, and psycho-spiritual factors at work in the emergence of the early church --- toward the end of an enriched understanding of the church today and keener insight into issues of religion and faith in our own time.
2. To be able to identify specifically the contributions of Roman, Hellenistic (Greek), and Jewish religion, philosophy, politics, and culture to the development and formation of Christian thought and practice.
3. To be able to construct a brief chronology of early church history, noting the main events, movements, and persons that mark that history.
4. To become familiar with the story and thought of key figures whose thought and writing led to new insight into the nature and meaning of Christian faith and practice, from Paul and other New Testament writers, to Ignatius, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Irenaeus, Origen, Eusebius, Gregory of Nyssa, Jerome, Cyprian, John Chrysostom, and Augustine.
5. To appreciate the role of theology as a way of wrestling with the recurrent issues, questions, and potentialities of life, and to identify the key theological formulations that develop in the early church, with special emphasis on the doctrines (=teaching) about God, the Trinity, Christ, the Holy Spirit, sin and grace, tradition and scripture, church and sacraments, Christian living, church and society, and the final goal of life.
6. To identify and reflect on the shifting development of the notions of orthodoxy and heresy, with special emphasis on Christian Gnosticism.
7. To identify those ideas and realities you believe to be most significant for humankind and for yourself.
Syllabus [Asterisked items indicate topics available for reports]
Part I. The Earliest Church and Its New Testament Evidence
Sept. 23 The Synoptic Gospels: Jesus of History and Christ of Faith
Read: (1) Special handout, "Who Wrote the Bible." Spend no more than 5 min. reading each of the 8 sections of the article. Summarize each section in one clear, informative sentence. (2) Special assignment on Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels.
*Fitzmyer, [CC] "What do we know about Jesus?" 11-17, and "What is to be said of the titles of Jesus?", 84-89
*Peter in the Early Church
*Crucifixion in antiquity
*The Gospel of Mark and his Theology
*The Gospel of Matthew and his Theology
Sept. 27 The Acts of the Apostles: Signs of Diversity and Conflict
Read: Special handout assignment
*Fitzmyer, CC "Are there different interpretations of Jesus (or different Christologies in the New Testament?", 81-85; and "Did Jesus Clearly Claim to be God?" pp. 97-100.
*The Ascension tradition in the early church
*Mary in the early Church
*The Theological perspective of Luke-Acts
*Jerusalem before and after 70 A.D.
*Miracles in the EC and in Classical Antiquity
Oct. 4 St. Paul: The Earliest Christian Writer and First Great Theologian, and the Gospel According to John, the Johannine Epistles, and Revelation
Read: Special handout assignments on Paul and Johannine literature
*Paul's Letters: An Overview and Digest
*Paul’s Message: Key Themes (cf. IDB, vol. K-Q, 69* The Gospel According to John: Its Special Nature and Message
* Numbers Symbolism and 666 in Revelation 13:18
* The Content and Purpose of the Book of Revelation
Part II. A Geographical, Cultural, and Chronological Overview
Oct. 11 The Geographical Overview: The Roman Empire & Mediterranean Basin
Read: Special handout assignment sheet.
Also. Stark, “Epidemics, Network, and Conversion, “ 73-94; and Stark, “Urban Chaos and Crisis: The Case of Antioch”, 147-62
* EC, 17-27, "The World of the Roman Empire"
* The City of Rome and the Church in Rome
* The catacombs
* Mystery religions
* Travels of Egeria (cf. bibliography under “Egeria”)
Oct. 18 The Chronological Overview: From Augustus to Constantine and Beyond 63.C. to A.D. 451
Read: Special handout. Pencil-check every date/event/person that strikes you as especially significant. For class, prepare your list of the 10 items you judge to be the most significant for the development of the EC. Read: Stark, “The Class Basis of Christianity,” 29-47
*Emperor worship and Roman Religion
*Eusebius. the primordial church historian
*The Emperors, from Augustus to Domitian, 31 BC to AD 96: A thumbnail sketch
*Augustine, the premier theologian in the first thousand years of Christianity
Part III. The Post-Apostolic Age and the Emergence of the Creeds
Oct. 25 The Didache: Life and Order in A Jewish-Christian Community
Read "The Didache" in Ehrman in the following sequence: Didache cc. 1-5, Ehrman 385-87; cc. 7-10, 346-47; cc. 11-15, , 323-25
Read: Stark, “The Mission to the Jews: Why It Probably Succeeded,” 49-72
Read: Ehrman, “Jewish Christian Texts, 134-45.
*Fasting in world religions and in the Early Church
*Shepherd of Hermas
*EC "The Jewish Dimension," 40-51
* Ehrman: “Anti-Jewish Polemic, The Opposition to Jews in Early Christianity,” 95-130
Nov. 1 Attack on Christianity: The Martyrs
Read: “Martyrdom of Polycarp, Ehrman, 30-35. Answer four questions: (1) Who was Polycarp? (2) What are his dates? (3) Why is this document of special importance? (4) Does it teach us anything today?
Read. Stark: Chap. 8. “The Martyrs: Sacrifice as Rational Choice,” 163-89
Read. Letter to Diognetus, Ehrman, 72-75
Read: The Letter of Ignatius to the Romans, Ehrman, 28-30
*Roman Persecution of Christians, AD 654-325
*Ehrman, Three documents on early Christian Martyrdom, 35-50
* Ignatius, His life, Letters, and Contribution to our Knowledge of the EC
* EC, 231-43. “Pagan Perceptions of Christianity”
* The origin, meaning, and use of the term “Catholic” in Church History
Nov. 8 The Defense of Christianity: The Apologists
Read. Justin , First Apology, Ehrman 57-65. List at least 10 items of defense of early Christian belief and practice that Justin brings to Roman attention to counter the 5 Roman charges that Christians are (1) atheistic, (2) immoral, (3) unpatriotic, (4) of lower social status, (5) uneducated and ignorant.
Read: Stark, 95-128, “The Role of Women in Christian Growth”
Read: Minucius Felix, Ehrman, 54-57 and Athenagoras, 65-70
* Tertullian, The Life and Writings of the First Latin Father
* Origen: The Life and Writings of an Eminent and Controversial Biblical Scholar
* The Role and Position of Women in the EC
Nov. 15 The Riddle of Heresy and Orthodoxy: Lost Strains of Christianity: The Gnostics, Montanists, and Manichaeans
Read: Special handout on Gnosticism
Read: Irenaeus, Against the Heresies, in Ehrman , 196-211
Read the following Gnostic texts in Ehrman:
. Intro. to Gnosticism, 144-45
. The Secret Book of John, 146-154
. The Gospel of Truth, 160-165
. The Treatise on the Resurrection, 182-84
Read: the following Non-Canonical Gospels in Ehrman:
. The Gospel of Thomas, 237-44
. The Infancy Gospel of Thomas, 255-59.
*New Testament Apocryphal Writings
*Irenaeus, The First Great “Catholic” Theologian.
* The Protevangelium of James (Ehrman, 247-55)
Nov. 29 The Emergence of Creeds: Constantine, Nicea, and Chalcedon
Read: Special handout on the Nicene Creed.
Read: Special handout by Elizabeth Johnson on five stages of development in Christology from the EC to the present
Read: Ehrman, 405-436, “The Emergence of Orthodoxy: Theological Writings of Proto-Orthodox Christians”
* Constantine the Great, as Emperor and Patron of the Christian movement
* The Apostle’s Creed
* The Council and Creed of Nicea
* W&S, “Trinity” (readings from Origen, Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa, and Augustine), 22-42
* W&S, “God” (readings from Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, and Augustine), 3-21.
* Pelagius and Pelagianism
*Arius and Arianism
Dec. 6 Developing Church Structures and Scriptures in the EC
Read: Ehrman, 317-342, “The Structure of Early Christianity The Development of Church Offices”
Read: Ehrman, 309-317, “The New Scriptures: Canonical Lists in Early Christianity”
Read: Stark, “Opportunity and Organization,” 191-208
* Origin of the priesthood
* Celibacy in Christian history and practice
* Bishops, Deacons, and Elders in the Early Church
* Sunday as the Lord’s Day
* W&S, “Tradition and Scripture” (readings), 127-158.
Dec. 13 Growth of Liturgy and a Christian Way of Life
Read: Ehrman, 343-60, “The Development of Liturgy: Ritual Practices in Early Christianity”
Read: Ehrman, 387-404, “Leading the Upright Life: Role of Ethics in Early Xty”
Read: Stark, “A Brief Reflection on Virtue,” 209-215
*Eucharist in the EC *Emergence of the cult of the saints
*Baptism in the EC *Jewish Origins of Christian Liturgy
* EC, 256-66, “Christian Attitudes Toward Poverty and Wealth”
* Origins of the Monastic Movement in the EC
*Augustine: Life, Writings, and Key Themes
* Mysticism in the EC *Christian ethics of sexuality
* Gregory of Nyssa
* W&S, 172-201, “Sacraments” (readings from Tertullian, Cyril of Jerusalem, Irenaeus, Gregory of Nyssa, John Chrysostom)
*W&S, “Christian Living” (readings from Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus, Cyprian, Basil, John Chrysostom) 202-223
NEW TESTAMENT : Research Resources in the Reference Room
- Rand McNally Bible Atlas BS630 K855
- Macmillan Bible Atlas BS630 Ah15
- Anchor Bible Commentary 192.2 A1 1964
- The New Interpreter’s Bible (12 vols.) BS491.2 N484 1994
- Women’s Bible Commentary BS 491.2 W66 1992
- Anchor Bible Dictionary (6 vols.) BS 440 A54 1992
- Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation (2 vols.) BS500 D5 1999
- Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (IVP) BS2555.2 D53 1992
- Encyclopedia of Biblical Theology BS 440 B46713 1981
- Exegetical Dictionary of the NT (3 vols.) (Grk) BS2312 E913 1990
- Harper’s Bible Dictionary 1985
- Hawthorne, G.F. and R. P. Martin, Paul and His Letters (IVP) BS 2650.2 D53 1993
- Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible BS440. I36 1986
- Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols.) BS444 IN85
- New Interpreter’s Dictionary of OT Theology and Exegesis (3 vols.) BS440 N438 1997
- New Interpreter’s Dictionary of NT Theology (3 vols.) BS2397 N48
- Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (10 vols.) BS440 B5713
- Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (10 vols.) BS 2312 T4713
- Analytical Concordance of the RSV of the New Testament BS2305 M67
- Eerdman’s Analytic Concordance (RSV) BS425 1989
- Nelson’s Complete Concordance (RSV) BS425 E4 1984
- The New RSV Concordance (John Kohlenberger III, ed.) BS425 K545 1991
- Whittaker, Analytical Concordance to the RSV Bible (1991) B S425 W48
- Young’s Analytical Concordance BS425 Y7 1970
- Greek English Concordance to the NT (Smith) BS2302 SM 61 1955
- Harper’s Topical Concordance BS432 H37 1976
- Moulton and Geden, A Concordance to the Greek NT BS2302 M862 1963
- Concordancia Completa de la Santa Biblia BS 428 S65 1979
EARLY CHURCH: Research Resources in the Reference Room
- Chadwick, H. & Evans, G. R., eds. Atlas of the Christian Church BR98 .A74 1987
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
- Clifton, C. S., ed. Encyclopedia of Heretics and Heresies BT1315.2 .C55 1992
- The Coptic Encyclopedia BX 130.5 .C66 1991 vols. 1-7
- Cornmire and Klezzner, eds., Women in World History HQ 1115 .W6 1995 vols. 1-11
- Cross, F. L., and Livingstone, E. A., eds., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd edit.) BR95 .O8 1997
- Dictionary of the Apostolic Church BS 440 .H279.4 vols. 1-2
- Döpp, S. and Geerlings, W., eds. Dictionary of Early Christian Literature BR 66.5 .L4813 2000
- Encyclopedia of the Early Church BR66.5 .D5813 1992 vols. 1-2
- Fahlbusch, Pelikan, et al. , eds., The Encyclopedia of Christianity BR95 .E8913 1999 vols. 1-2 (to date; A-I)
- Ferguson, E., ed. Encyclopedia of Early Christianity BR 162.2 .E53 1997 vols. 1-2
- Harper Collins Dictionary of Religion BL31 .H37 1995
- Hart, T. A., Gen. ed., Dictionary of Historical Theology BT 21.2 .D53 2000
- Hastings, J., Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics BL31 .En19 vols. 1-13
- Martin, R.P. and Davids, P. H., editors, Dictionary of the Later New Testament and its Development BS2625.5 .D5
- McKim, D., Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms BR95 .M378 1996
- New Catholic Encyclopedia BX841 .N42
- Schiffman, L. H. & VanderKam, J.C., eds. Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls BM487 .E53 2000 vols. 1-2
- Schneemelcher, NT Apocrypha, (2 vols.) BS2832 .S3 1991
- -Quasten, Johannes, Patrology BW205 .Q28 vols. 1-3
- Robinson, James, The Nag Hammadi Library BT1391 .A3 1986
- Robinson, T. A., The Early Church: An Annotated Bibliography on Literature in English BR 162.2 .R63 1993
Consult with librarians Marie Rovero or Steven Blackburn on how to access Hartford Seminary religion database using keywords for bibliography or topics.
A REPRESENTATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECENT RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION ON THE EARLY CHURCH
[Most books are in HartSem library; others are available through inter-library loan; cf. librarians]
.Akers, Keith. The Lost Religion of Jesus: Simple Living and Nonviolence in Early Christianity. New York: Lantern Books, 2000.
. Arlandson, James Malcolm, Women, Class and Society in Early Christianity: Models from Luke-Acts (Hendrickson, 1997) [women; Greco-Roman world, etc.]
. Arnold, Aberhard. The Early Christians: In Their Own Words. Farmington, PA: Plough Publishing House, 1997.
. Avalos, Hector. Health Care and the Rise of Christianity. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999.
. Bauer, Walter, Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979)
. Bakke, O. M., When Children Became People: The Birth of Childhood in Early Christianity (Minneapolis, Fortress, 2005)
. Benko, S. and O’Rourke, John J. The Catacombs and the Colosseum: The Roman Empire as the Setting of Primitive Christianity (Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1971)
. Benko, S., Pagan Rome and the Early Christians (Indiana Univ. Press, 1986)
. Blassi, Anthony J., Jean Duhaime, and Paul-Andre Turcotte, eds. Handbook of Early Christianity: Social Science Approaches: AltaMira Press, 200.
. Bockmuehl, Markus. Jewish Law in Gentile Churches: Halakhah and the Beginning of Christian Public Ethics. New York: Continuum, 2000.
. Boer, H. R., A Short History of the Early Church (Eerdmans, 1976)
. Borg, Marcus, Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time (HarperSanFrancisco, 1984)
. Bradshaw, Paul F., Daily Prayer in the Early Church: A Study of the Origins and Early Development of the Divine Office (London: SPCK, 1981)
. Brown, Peter, The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982)
Brown, Peter. Augustine of Hippo: A Biography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
. Brown, Peter, The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation (Columbia, 1988)
. Brown, R.E., The Churches the Apostles Left Behind (Paulist, 1984)
. Brox, Norbert. A Concise History of the Early Church. New York: Continuum, 1995)
. Burns, J. Patout, S. J., ed. & trans., Theological Anthropology (Sources of Early Christian Thought), (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980)
. Cameron, Ron, The Other Gospels: Non-Canonical Gospel Texts (Westminster, 1982)
. Capon, Robert F. The Astonished Heart: Reclaiming the Good News from the Lost and Found of Church History ( Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996)
. Case, Shirley Jackson, Experience with the Super-natural in Early Christian Times (The Century, 1929)
. Cassan, Lionel, Libraries in the Ancient World (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2001)
. Cavadini, John C., ed., Miracles in Jewish and Christian Antiquity: Imagining Truth (Notre Dame; University of Notre Dame Press, 1999)
. Chilton, Bruce , and Craig A. Evans, eds. James the Just and Christian Origins. Leiden: Brill, 1999.
. Clark,, Elizabeth, Women in the Early Church (Michael Glazier, 1983)
. Clement, Olivier. The Roots of Christian Mysticism: Texts from the Patristic Era with Commentary: New City Press, 1993
. Cloke Gillian, “This Female Man of God: Women and Spiritual Power in the Patristic Age, AD 350-450 (Routledge, 1995)
. Cochrane, Charles Norris, Christianity and Classical Culture: A Study of Thought and Action from Augustus to Augustine (Oxford, 1940, 1957)
. Comby, Jean. How To Read Church History: Volume I: From the Beginning to the Fifteenth Century. New York: Crossroad, 1989.
. Cook, John Grainger. The Interpretation of the New Testament in Greco-Roman Paganism. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2002.
. Cotter, Wendy, Miracles in Greco-roman Antiquity: A Sourcebook for the Study of New Testament Miracle Stories (London: Routledge, 1999)
.Court, John M. , and Dan Cohn-Sherbok, eds. Religious Diversity in the Graeco-Roman World: A Survey of Recent Scholarship. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.
. Crossan, John Dominic, The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus (HarperSanFrancisco, 1998)
.-----------------------------, Who Killed Jesus? Exploring the Roots of Anti-Semitism in the Gospel
Story of the Death of Jesus (HarperSanFrancisco, 1995)
. Crossan, John Dominic. The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1998.
. Cwiekowski S.S., Frederick J. The Beginnings of the Church. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 1997
. Daniélou, Jean, The Theology of Jewish Christianity (London: H. Regnery, 1964)
. Dart, John, The Jesus of Heresy and History: The Discovery and Meaning of the Nag Hammadi Gnostic Library (Harper and Row, 1988)
. Davies, J. G., The Early Christian Church (Wiedenfeld & Nicolson, 1965)
. Davies, Jon, Death, Burial and Rebirth in the Religions of Antiquity (London: Routledge, 1999)
. Davis, Stephen J. The Cult of St. Thecla: A Traditon of Women's Piety in Late Antiquity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
. Di Sante, Carmine, Jewish Prayer: The Origins of Christian Liturgy (New York: Paulist, 1991)
.Drury, John, Painting the Word: Christian Pictures and Their Meaning (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1999)
.Duffy, Eamon, Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1997) .
Edwards, Douglas, Religion and Power: Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Greek East (Oxford, 1996)
. Edwards, J. R. (2005). Is Jesus the Only Savior? Grand Rapids, Eerdmans.
. Eisen, Ute, Women Officeholders in Early Christianity: Epigraphical and Literary Studies (Collegeville: Liturgical press, 2000)
. Egeria, Egeria: Diary of a Pilgrimage (Newman Press, 1970) [G.E.Gingras, trans.]
. Elliott, J. K., ed. The Apocryphal Jesus: Legends of the Early Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
. Eusebius, The History of the Church from Christ to Constantine (NYU Press, 1966)
. Ferguson, E., Backgrounds of Early Christianity (Eerdmans, 1993)
. Fisher, Eugene J., ed., Jewish Roots of Christian Liturgy (New York: Paulist, 1990)
. Fitzmyer, Joseph A. A Christological Catechism: New Testament Answers. New Revised and Expanded ed. New York: Paulist, 1991.
. Fredriksen, Paula, From Jesus to Christ (Yale, 1988)
. Frend, W. H. C., The Archaeology of Early Christianity: A History (Fortress, 1996)
--------------------, The Early Church( Fortress, 1965, 1987)
. Frend, W. H. C., Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (New York: New York University Press, 1993)
. Fuchs, E., Sexual Desire and Love: Origins and History of the Christian Ethic of Sexuality and Marriage (New York: Seabury, 1983)
. Gaventa, Beverly Roberts, and Cynthia L. Rigby, eds. Blessed One: Protestant Perspectives on Mary: Westminster John Knox Press, 2002.
. Goguel, Maurice, The Primitive Church (London: Allen & Unwin, 1947/ 1963)
. Goldhill, Simon, ed. Being Greek Under Rome: Cultural Identity, the Second Sophistic and the Development of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
. Gonzalez, Justo. The Changing Shape of Church History: Chalice Press, 2003.
. Gonzalez, Justo L., Faith and Wealth: A History of Early Christian Ideas on the Origin, Significance and Use of Money (HarperSanFrancisco, 1990)
. Gorman, Michael J., Abortion and the Early Church: Pagan, Jewish and Christian Attitudes in the Greco-Roman World (New York: Paulist, 1982)
. Goulder, Michael, St. Paul vs. St. Peter: A Tale of Two Missions (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1994)
. Grant, R. M., Augustus to Constantine: The Rise and Triumph of Early Christianity in the Roman World (Harper & Row, 1970)
.----------------, Early Christianity and Society: Seven Studies (Harper & Row, 1977)
. ---------------., Eusebius as Church Historian (Oxford/Clarendon, 1980)
. Grant, Robert M. Irenaeus [The Early Christian Fathers} (London: Routledge, 1997)
. Greer, Rowan, Broken Lights and Mended Lives: Theology and Common Life in the Early Church (Penn State, 1986)
. Hahn, Ferdinand, The Worship of the Early Church (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1973)
. Hamerton-Kelley, Robert G., The Gospel and the Sacred: Poetics of Violence in Mark (Fortress, 1994) [René Girard, foreword]
. Harrison, E., The Apostolic Church (Eerdmans, 1985)
.Hazlett, Ian, ed. Early Christianity: Origins and Evolution to A.D. 600. Nashville: Abingdon, 1991..
.Hennecke, Edgar, ed. New Testament Apocrypha, II. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Two vols. Vol. Two: Writings Relating to the Apostles; Apocalypses and Related Subjects. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1963.
.Hinson, Glenn. The Early Church : Origins to the Dawn of the Middle Ages. Nashville: Abingdon, 1996.
. Horsley, R. A., ed. Paul and Empire: Religion and Power in Roman Imperial Society (Trinity Press International, 1997)
. Hovenden, Gerald. Speaking in Tongues: The New Testament Evidence in Context, Journal of Pentecostal Theology Supplement Series, 22. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002.
.Hurtado, Larry, At the Origins of Christian Worship: The Context and Character of Earliest Christian Devotion (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999)
.Jaeger, Werner, Early Christianity and Greek Paideia (Harvard, l961)
. Jeffers, James S., Conflict at Rome: Social Order and Hierarchy in Early Christianity (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991)
. Johnson, Elizabeth A., Consider Jesus: Waves of Renewal in Christology (Crossroad, 1992)
. Jones, F. Stanley, ed. Which Mary?: The Marys of Early Christian Tradition. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2002.
. Kannengiesser, Charles, Early Christian Spirituality (Fortress, 1986)
. Kee, Howard Clark, Who Are the People of God? Early Christian Models of Community (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995)
. Kelly, J. N. D. Early Christian Doctrines. 5th ed. Continuum, 2000.
. Kiley, Mark, ed. Prayer from Alexander [the Great] to Constantine (London: Routledge, 1997)
. Klauck, Hans-Josef. The Religious Context of Early Christianity: A Guide to Graeco-Roman Religion. Translated by Mcneil, Brian. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2003.
. LaPorte, Jean, The Role of Women in Early Christianity (Edwin Mellen, 1982)
. Levison, Priscilla Pope and John R. Levison, Jesus in Global Contexts (Westminster John Knox, 1992)
. Lietzmann, Hans, The Beginnings of the Christianity Church, Vol. I (Meridian Books, 1958)
.---------------------. The Founding of the Church Universal, Vol. 2 (1956)
.---------------------, From Constantine to Julian, Vol. 3 (1956)
----------------------, The Era of the Church Fathers, Vol. 4 (1958)
. Lieu, Judith M. Neither Jew Nor Greek? Constructing Early Christianity. T&T Clark, 2003.
. Longenecker, Richard N., New Wine into Fresh Wineskins: Contextualizing the Early Christian Confessions (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999)
.Lyman, Rebecca, Early Christian Traditions (Cowley; Cambridge, Mass, 1999)
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