The primary focus of this inter-disciplinary social science course is the evolution of political and constitutional secularism. The effort to design and justify secular governments free from religious domination first arose during the American and French revolutions. Today, because of the large powers and broad influences of governments, many entanglements arise with religious practices and beliefs. We shall examine the ways that states handle both separation and entanglement by studying selected countries around the world. The course will focus in-depth on a comparative analysis of secularism and religion-state relations in countries with historic ties to different religious traditions – U.S.A. (Protestant Christianity), France (Catholicism), Turkey (Islam), Israel (Judaism) and India (Hinduism).