Academic Programs 

The Early Church (HI-550)
Fall 2004

This course will trace the growth and development of Christianity from its earliest beginnings in the first century to the great councils of the fourth and fifth centuries, stopping en route to examine selected texts from the New Testament, early Christian and Roman documents, the writings of the Fathers and the earliest creeds, ranging from the Gospels and St. Paul to Ignatius, Justin, Origen, Basil, Augustine, and Nicea.  The course will focus on emergent Christian thought, the nature of God and Christ, the Bible, Church and sacraments, sin, grace, salvation, the relation of church and state, and the Christian way of life, toward the goal of gaining keener insight into issues of religion and faith today. 

Meeting Day, Time and Dates:
Thursdays from 4:30 p.m. to 6:50 p.m.  
Wayne Rollins
Adjunct Professor of Biblical Studies

Contact Information:
(860) 509-9500


Course Syllabus

Thoughts on History, Church, and Us

  • "There are many sheep without, many wolves within." --St. Augustine of Hippo

  • "The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church." -- Tertullian  

  • "Do not be like those people who think they are inaugurating a new era, as if before they came along there had been nothing but emptiness or chaos.  Before we came there were our parents, and they were the latest link of a long and sacred chain.  The generations which went before us left such wonderful proofs of their noble victories in the cause of truth and goodness that we fear we may never equal them in merit and glory.  It would be a meritorious thing for us all frankly to admit that we should still be very wretched indeed, and hardly out of the phase of barbarism, if the civilization of past centuries had not seen to our baptism." -- Pope John XXIII 

  • “I accented the historicity of the Church, showing that it does evolve and change through the centuries. If it freezes, it ceases to be alive. It needs to speak to the problems of the day.”   -- Avery Dulles 

  • "Christian life is the life of Christ in man and man in Christ." -Romano Guardini


Books for Purchase

  • Bible (New Oxford Annotated Bible recommended) 

  • Ehrman, Bart. After the New Testament: A Reader in Early Christianity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. [=Ehrman]  

  • Stark, Rodney. The Rise of Christianity. How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries. San Francisco: Harper SanFrancisco, 1997.[=Stark]


Additional Texts on Permanent Reserve

  • Fitzmyer, Joseph, S. J. A Christological Catechism: New Testament Answers  (Paulist)      [=CC] 

  • Hazlett, Ian, ed. Early Christianity: Origins and Evolution to A.D. 600 (Abingdon)          [=EC]   

  • Richardson, Cyril, ed. Early Christian Fathers. New York: Collier/ Macmillan, 1970.[= ECF

  • Wiles, Maurice and Santer, Mark, eds. Documents in Early Christian Thought   (Cambridge University Press) [=W&S]


1. Weekly readings, class participation, regular attendance. Classroom exchange is as important as the reading. (Each absence = reduction of one letter attendance grade; consistent tardiness also reduces the grade. See instructor for makeup in case of an emergency).  [1/5 of grade]

2. *One class report, chosen from the topics asterisked in the syllabus, presented orally to the class, and submitted in written form (5 type-written pages maximum) to the instructor:                    

a. Begin by explaining why this topic interested you.

b. The body of the report should consist of an orderly account of the topic, focusing on five to ten facts of interest to you and relevant to the interests of the class. 

c. Conclude with an observation on how this topic illumines our understanding of the subject matter of this course (e.g., morally, historically, spiritually, literarily, personally).

d. Include a brief bibliography in the written version (including web sources, if used).

The grade will be based primarily on the written version (clarity, organization, thoughtfulness, and range of issues and applications considered) [1/5 of grade]

3. *One book review  (see bibliography), presented orally to the class , and submitted in written form (5 type-written pages maximum) to the instructor. The reviewer is asked (a) to give a clear overview of the key points in the book and (b) to identify up to ten ideas he/she has found most helpful or informative.  The reviewer is asked to prepare some "visuals" (hand-outs, chalk-board outlines, or overhead projector transparencies, etc.)  to enhance communication with the group, and to present at least one issue for group discussion (maximum 5 pages). [1/5 of grade]

4. *A Final Project, due December 16.  Notify instructor of your choice of topic by October 28, indicating some tentative bibliography and the question you plan to explore.  The student has the choice of writing either on a standard research topic , or preparing an essay on “The Early Church in Contemporary perspective,” as a way of relating the substance of the course to the experience and interests of the student. Further guidelines for this latter option will be provided [2/5 of grade].

*All academic papers are to conform to conventional technical, grammatical and stylistic standards referred to in the Hartford Seminary General Guidelines for a Research Paper. The Hartford Seminary Grading Guidelines will be the standard of evaluation for work in the course

Course Objectives

1.  To provide an opportunity for reflecting critically on the diverse historical, social, economic, artistic, theological, economic, liturgical, religious, ecclesiastical, and psycho-spiritual factors at work in the emergence of the early church --- toward the end of an enriched understanding of the church today and keener insight into issues of religion and faith in our own time.

 2. To be able to identify specifically the contributions of Roman, Hellenistic (Greek), and Jewish religion, philosophy, politics, and culture to the development and formation of Christian thought and practice.


3. To be able to construct a brief chronology of early church history, noting the main events, movements, and persons that mark that history.


4. To become familiar with the story and thought of key figures whose thought and writing led to new insight into the nature and meaning of Christian faith and practice, from Paul and other New Testament writers, to Ignatius, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Irenaeus, Origen,  Eusebius, Gregory of Nyssa, Jerome, Cyprian, John Chrysostom, and Augustine.


5. To appreciate the role of theology as a way of wrestling with the recurrent issues, questions, and potentialities of life, and to identify the key theological formulations that develop in the early church, with special emphasis on the doctrines (=teaching) about God, the Trinity, Christ, the Holy Spirit, sin and grace, tradition and scripture, church and sacraments, Christian living, church and society, and the final goal of life.


6. To identify and reflect on the shifting development of the notions of orthodoxy and heresy, with special emphasis on Christian Gnosticism.


7. To identify those ideas and realities you believe to be most significant for humankind and for yourself.


Syllabus  [Asterisked items indicate topics available for reports]

Sept.16            Prospectus
Part I. The Earliest Church and Its New Testament Evidence

Sept. 23            The Synoptic Gospels: Jesus of History and Christ of Faith

Read: (1) Special handout, "Who Wrote the Bible." Spend no more than 5 min. reading each of the 8 sections of the article. Summarize each section in one clear, informative sentence. (2) Special assignment on Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels.


*Fitzmyer, [CC] "What do we know about  Jesus?" 11-17, and "What is to be said of the titles of Jesus?", 84-89 

*Peter in the Early Church

*Crucifixion in antiquity

*The Gospel of Mark and his Theology         

*The Gospel of Matthew and his Theology


Sept. 30            The Acts of the Apostles: Signs of Diversity and Conflict


Read: Special handout assignment


*Fitzmyer,  CC "Are there different interpretations of Jesus (or different Christologies in the New Testament?", 81-85; and "Did Jesus Clearly Claim to be God?" pp. 97-100.

*The Ascension tradition in the early church                  

*Mary in the early Church

*The Theological perspective of Luke-Acts   

*Jerusalem before and after 70 A.D.   

*Miracles in the EC and in Classical Antiquity


Oct. 7              St. Paul: The Earliest Christian Writer and First Great Theologian, and the Gospel According to John, the Johannine Epistles, and Revelation


Read: Special handout assignments on Paul and Johannine literature

*Paul's Travels             

*Paul's Letters: An Overview and Digest

*Paul’s Message: Key Themes (cf. IDB, vol. K-Q, 690-704)

*The Gospel According to John: Its Special Nature and Message

*Numbers Symbolism and 666 in Revelation 13:18

*The Content and Purpose of the Book of Revelation                                                       


Part II. A Geographical, Cultural, and Chronological Overview


Oct. 14          The Geographical Overview: The Roman Empire & Mediterranean Basin


Read: Special handout assignment sheet.

Also. Stark, “Epidemics, Network, and Conversion, “ 73-94; and Stark, “Urban Chaos and Crisis: The Case of Antioch”, 147-62


* EC, 17-27, "The World of the Roman Empire"

* The City of Rome and the Church in Rome            

* The catacombs                              

* Mystery religions

* Travels of Egeria (cf. bibliography under “Egeria”)


Oct. 21           The Chronological Overview: From Augustus to Constantine and Beyond:   63.C. to A.D. 451                 


Read: Special handout. Pencil-check every date/event/person that strikes you as especially significant. For class, prepare your list of the 10 items you judge to be the most significant for the development of the EC.  


Read: Stark, “The Class Basis of Christianity,” 29-47


*Augustus Caesar                                 

*Emperor worship and Roman Religion


*Eusebius. the primordial church historian

*The Emperors, from Augustus to Domitian, 31 BC to AD 96: A thumbnail sketch

*Augustine, the premier theologian in the first thousand years of Christianity


Part III. The Post-Apostolic Age and the Emergence of the Creeds


Oct. 28              The Didache: Life and Order in A Jewish-Christian Community


Read  "The Didache" in Ehrman in the following sequence:  Didache cc. 1-5,  Ehrman 385-87; cc. 7-10, 346-47; cc. 11-15, , 323-25

Read: Stark, “The Mission to the Jews: Why It Probably Succeeded,” 49-7

Read: Ehrman, “Jewish Christian Texts, 134-45.


*Jewish Christianity  

*Fasting in world religions and in the Early Church

*Apostolic Fathers 

*Shepherd of Hermas

*EC "The Jewish Dimension," 40-51

* Ehrman: “Anti-Jewish Polemic, The Opposition to Jews in Early Christianity,” 95-130



Nov. 4               Attack on Christianity: The Martyrs


Read: “Martyrdom of Polycarp,  Ehrman, 30-35. Answer four questions: (1) Who was Polycarp? (2) What are his dates? (3) Why is this document of special importance? (4) Does it teach us anything today?

Read. Stark: Chap. 8. “The Martyrs: Sacrifice as Rational Choice,” 163-89

Read. Letter to Diognetus, Ehrman, 72-75

Read: The Letter of Ignatius to the Romans, Ehrman, 28-30


*Roman Persecution of Christians, AD 654-325

*Ehrman, Three documents on early Christian Martyrdom, 35-50

* Ignatius, His life, Letters, and Contribution to our Knowledge of the EC

* EC, 231-43. “Pagan Perceptions of Christianity”

* The origin, meaning, and use of the term “Catholic” in Church History


Nov. 11          The Defense of Christianity: The Apologists


Read. Justin , First Apology, Ehrman 57-65. List at least 10 items of defense of early Christian belief and practice that Justin brings to Roman attention to counter the 5 Roman charges that Christians are (1) atheistic, (2) immoral, (3) unpatriotic, (4) of lower social status, (5) uneducated and ignorant.

Read: Stark, 95-128, “The Role of Women in Christian Growth”

Read: Minucius Felix, Ehrman, 54-57  and Athenagoras, 65-70


* Tertullian, The Life and Writings of the First Latin Father

* Origen: The Life and Writings of an Eminent and Controversial Biblical Scholar

* The Role and Position of Women in the EC



Nov. 18            The Riddle of Heresy and Orthodoxy: Lost Strains of Christianity: The Gnostics, Montanists, and Manichaeans


Read: Special handout on Gnosticism

Read: Irenaeus, Against the Heresies, in  Ehrman , 196-211

Read the following Gnostic texts in Ehrman:

  • Intro. to Gnosticism, 144-45

  • The Secret Book of John, 146-154

  • The Gospel of Truth, 160-165

  • Ptolemy’s Letter to Flora (on scripture), 166-70

  • The Treatise on the Resurrection, 182-84

Read: the following Non-Canonical Gospels in Ehrman:

  • The Gospel of Thomas, 237-44

  • The Infancy Gospel of Thomas, 255-59.

*New Testament Apocryphal Writings

*Irenaeus, The First Great “Catholic” Theologian.

* The Protevangelium of James (Ehrman, 247-55)

* Marcion                        




Dec. 2  The Emergence of Creeds: Constantine, Nicea, and Chalcedon


Read: Special handout on the Nicene Creed.

Read: Special handout by Elizabeth Johnson on five stages of development in Christology from the EC to the present

Read: Ehrman, 405-436, “The Emergence of Orthodoxy: Theological Writings of Proto-Orthodox Christians”

* Constantine the Great, as Emperor and Patron of the Christian movement

* The Apostle’s Creed                           

* The Council and Creed of Nicea

* W&S, “Trinity” (readings from Origen, Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa, and Augustine), 22-42

* W&S, “God” (readings from Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, and Augustine), 3-21.

* Pelagius and Pelagianism                              

*Arius and Arianism


Dec. 9              Developing Church Structures and Scriptures in the EC


Read: Ehrman, 317-342, “The Structure of Early Christianity The Development of Church Offices”

Read: Ehrman, 309-317, “The New Scriptures: Canonical Lists in Early Christianity”

Read: Stark, “Opportunity and Organization,” 191-208


* Origin of the priesthood        

* Celibacy in Christian history and practice

* Bishops, Deacons, and Elders in the Early Church

* Sunday as the Lord’s Day

* W&S, “Tradition and Scripture” (readings), 127-158.



Dec. 16            Growth of Liturgy and a Christian Way of Life


Read: Ehrman, 343-60, “The Development of Liturgy: Ritual Practices in Early Christianity”

Read: Ehrman, 387-404, “Leading the Upright Life: Role of Ethics in Early Xty”

Read: Stark, “A Brief Reflection on Virtue,” 209-215


*Eucharist in the EC                              

*Emergence of the cult of the saints

*Baptism in the EC                              

*Jewish Origins of Christian Liturgy

* EC, 256-66, “Christian Attitudes Toward Poverty and Wealth”

* Origins of the Monastic Movement in the EC

*Augustine: Life, Writings, and Key Themes

* Mysticism in the EC                              

*Christian ethics of sexuality

* Gregory of Nyssa

* W&S, 172-201, “Sacraments” (readings from Tertullian, Cyril of Jerusalem, Irenaeus, Gregory of Nyssa, John Chrysostom)

*W&S, “Christian Living” (readings from Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus, Cyprian, Basil, John Chrysostom) 202-223



NEW TESTAMENT : Research Resources in the Reference Room


            -     Rand McNally Bible Atlas   BS630 K855
-     Macmillan Bible Atlas   BS630 Ah15

General Commentaries

-    Anchor Bible Commentary                 192.2 A1 1964
-    The New Interpreter’s Bible (12 vols.) BS491.2 N484 1994
-    Women’s Bible Commentary            BS 491.2  W66 1992


-        Anchor Bible Dictionary (6 vols.) BS 440 A54 1992
-        Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation (2 vols.)  BS500 D5 1999
-        Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (IVP) BS2555.2  D53  1992
-        Encyclopedia of Biblical Theology BS 440 B46713 1981
-        Exegetical Dictionary of the NT (3 vols.) (Grk) BS2312 E913 1990
-         Harper’s Bible Dictionary   1985
-         Hawthorne, G.F. and R. P. Martin, Paul and His Letters  (IVP) BS 2650.2 D53  1993
-        Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible   BS440. I36 1986
-         Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols.) BS444 IN85
-         New Interpreter’s Dictionary of OT Theology and Exegesis  (3 vols.)  BS440 N438 1997
-        New Interpreter’s Dictionary of NT Theology (3 vols.) BS2397 N48
-        Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (10 vols.) BS440 B5713
-        Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (10 vols.) BS 2312 T4713


-    Analytical Concordance of the RSV of the New Testament BS2305 M67
-    Eerdman’s Analytic Concordance (RSV) BS425 1989
-    Nelson’s Complete Concordance (RSV) BS425 E4 1984
-    The New RSV Concordance (John Kohlenberger III, ed.) BS425 K545 1991
-    Whittaker, Analytical Concordance to the RSV Bible  (1991) B S425 W48
-    Young’s Analytical Concordance BS425 Y7 1970

  Specialized Concordances

-         Greek English Concordance to the NT (Smith)  BS2302 SM 61 1955
-         Harper’s Topical Concordance  BS432 H37 1976
-         Moulton and Geden, A Concordance to the Greek NT  BS2302 M862 1963
-         Concordancia Completa de la Santa Biblia  BS 428 S65 1979

EARLY CHURCH: Research Resources in the Reference Room


-  Chadwick, H. & Evans, G. R., eds. Atlas of the Christian Church  BR98 .A74  1987

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

  -  Clifton, C. S., ed. Encyclopedia of Heretics and Heresies  BT1315.2 .C55 1992
-  The Coptic Encyclopedia  BX 130.5 .C66 1991  vols. 1-7
-  Cornmire and Klezzner, eds., Women in World History  HQ 1115 .W6 1995  vols. 1-11
-  Cross, F. L., and Livingstone, E. A., eds., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd edit.)  BR95 .O8   1997
-  Dictionary of the Apostolic Church  BS 440 .H279.4 vols. 1-2
-  Döpp, S. and Geerlings, W., eds. Dictionary of Early Christian Literature  BR 66.5  .L4813  2000
-  Encyclopedia of the Early Church  BR66.5  .D5813  1992  vols. 1-2
-  Fahlbusch, Pelikan, et al. , eds., The Encyclopedia of Christianity  BR95  .E8913  1999  vols. 1-2 (to date; A-I)
  -  Ferguson, E., ed.  Encyclopedia of Early Christianity  BR 162.2 .E53 1997  vols. 1-2
-  Harper Collins Dictionary of Religion  BL31  .H37  1995
-  Hart, T. A., Gen. ed., Dictionary of Historical Theology  BT 21.2 .D53  2000
-  Hastings, J., Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics  BL31 .En19  vols. 1-13
-  Martin, R.P. and Davids, P. H., editors, Dictionary of the Later New Testament and its Development   BS2625.5 .D5
- McKim, D., Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms  BR95  .M378  1996
- New Catholic Encyclopedia  BX841 .N42


Special Resources

-  Schiffman, L. H. & VanderKam, J.C., eds. Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls BM487 .E53 2000 vols. 1-2
-  Schneemelcher, NT Apocrypha, (2 vols.) BS2832 .S3 1991
- -Quasten, Johannes, Patrology  BW205 .Q28 vols. 1-3
-  Robinson, James,  The Nag Hammadi Library  BT1391 .A3 1986
-  Robinson, T. A., The Early Church: An Annotated Bibliography on Literature in English   BR 162.2 .R63 1993

 Online Resources

Consult with librarians   Marie Rovero or Steven Blackburn on how to access Hartford Seminary religion database using keywords for bibliography  or topics.


[Most books are in HartSem library; others are available through inter-library loan; cf. librarians]

.Akers, Keith. The Lost Religion of Jesus: Simple Living and Nonviolence in Early Christianity.                 New York: Lantern Books, 2000.

. Arlandson, James Malcolm, Women, Class and Society in Early Christianity: Models from Luke-Acts (Hendrickson, 1997) [women; Greco-Roman world, etc.]

. Avalos, Hector. Health Care and the Rise of Christianity. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999.

. Bauer, Walter, Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979)

. Benko, S. and O’Rourke, John J. The Catacombs and the Colosseum: The Roman Empire as the Setting of Primitive Christianity (Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1971)

. Benko, S., Pagan Rome and the Early Christians (Indiana Univ. Press, 1986)

. Blassi, Anthony J., Jean Duhaime, and Paul-Andre Turcotte, eds. Handbook of Early Christianitiy: Social Science Approaches: AltaMira Press, 200.

. Boer, H. R., A Short History of the Early Church (Eerdmans, 1976)

. Borg, Marcus, Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time (HarperSanFrancisco, 1984)

. Bradshaw, Paul F., Daily Prayer in the Early Church: A Study of the Origins and Early Development of the Divine Office (London: SPCK, 1981)

. Brown, Peter, The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982)

Brown, Peter. Augustine of Hippo: A Biography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

. Brown, Peter, The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation (Columbia, 1988)

. Brown, R.E., The Churches the Apostles Left Behind (Paulist, 1984)

. Brox, Norbert. A Concise History of the Early Church. New York: Continuum, 1995)

. Burns, J. Patout, S. J., ed. & trans., Theological Anthropology (Sources of Early Christian Thought), (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980)

. Cameron, Ron, The Other Gospels: Non-Canonical Gospel Texts (Westminster, 1982)

. Capon, Robert F. The Astonished Heart: Reclaiming the Good News from the Lost and Found of Church History ( Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996)

. Case, Shirley Jackson, Experience with the Super-natural in Early Christian Times (The        Century, 1929)

. Cassan, Lionel, Libraries in the Ancient World (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2001)

. Cavadini, John C., ed., Miracles in Jewish and Christian Antiquity: Imagining Truth (Notre Dame; University of Notre Dame Press,  1999)

. Clark,, Elizabeth, Women in the Early Church (Michael Glazier, 1983)

. Clement, Olivier. The Roots of Christian Mysticism: Texts from the Patristic Era with Commentary: New City Press, 2000

. Cloke Gillian, “This Female Man of God: Women and Spiritual Power in the Patristic Age, AD 350-450 (Routledge, 1995)

. Cochrane, Charles Norris, Christianity and Classical Culture: A Study of Thought and Action from Augustus to Augustine (Oxford, 1940, 1957)

. Cook, John Grainger. The Interpretation of the New Testament in Greco-Roman Paganism. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2002.

. Cotter, Wendy, Miracles in Greco-roman Antiquity: A Sourcebook for the Study of New Testament Miracle Stories (London: Routledge, 1999)

.Court, John M. , and Dan Cohn-Sherbok, eds. Religious Diversity in the Graeco-Roman World: A Survey of Recent Scholarship. Sheffield:  Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.

. Crossan, John Dominic, The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus (HarperSanFrancisco, 1998)

.-----------------------------,  Who Killed Jesus? Exploring the Roots of Anti-Semitism in the Gospel Story of the Death of Jesus (HarperSanFrancisco, 1995)

. Daniélou, Jean, The Theology of Jewish Christianity (London: H. Regnery, 1964)

. Dart, John, The Jesus of Heresy and History: The Discovery and Meaning of the Nag Hammadi Gnostic Library  (Harper and Row, 1988)

. Davies, J. G., The Early Christian Church (Wiedenfeld & Nicolson, 1965)

. Davies, Jon, Death, Burial and Rebirth in the Religions of Antiquity (London: Routledge, 1999)

. Davis, Stephen J. The Cult of St. Thecla: A Traditon of Women's Piety in Late Antiquity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

. Di Sante, Carmine, Jewish Prayer: The Origins of Christian Liturgy (New York: Paulist, 1991)

.Drury, John, Painting the Word: Christian Pictures and Their Meaning (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1999)

.Duffy, Eamon, Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1997) .

 Edwards, Douglas, Religion and Power: Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Greek East (Oxford, 1996)

. Eisen, Ute, Women Officeholders in Early Christianity: Epigraphical and Literary Studies (Collegeville: Liturgical press, 2000)

. Egeria, Egeria: Diary of a Pilgrimage (Newman Press, 1970) [G.E.Gingras, trans.]

. Eusebius, The History of the Church from Christ to Constantine (NYU Press, 1966)

. Ferguson, E., Backgrounds of Early Christianity (Eerdmans, 1993)

. Fisher, Eugene J., ed., Jewish Roots of Christian Liturgy (New York: Paulist, 1990)

. Fitzmyer, Joseph A. A Christological Catechism: New Testament Answers. New Revised and Expanded ed. New York: Paulist, 1991.

. Fredriksen, Paula, From Jesus to Christ (Yale, 1988)

. Frend, W. H. C., The Archaeology of Early Christianity: A History (Fortress, 1996)

--------------------, The Early Church( Fortress, 1965, 1987)

. Frend, W. H. C., Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church  (New York: New York University Press, 1993)

. Fuchs, E., Sexual Desire and Love: Origins and History of the Christian Ethic of Sexuality and Marriage (New York: Seabury, 1983)

. Goguel, Maurice,  The Primitive Church (London: Allen & Unwin, 1947/ 1963)

. Gonzalez, Justo L., Faith and Wealth: A History of Early Christian Ideas on the Origin, Significance and Use of Money (HarperSanFrancisco, 1990)

. Gorman, Michael J., Abortion and the Early Church:  Pagan, Jewish and Christian Attitudes in the Greco-Roman World (New York: Paulist, 1982)

. Goulder, Michael, St. Paul vs. St. Peter: A Tale of Two Missions (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1994)

. Grant, R. M., Augustus to Constantine: The Rise and Triumph of Early Christianity in the Roman World (Harper & Row, 1970)

.----------------, Early Christianity and Society: Seven Studies  (Harper & Row, 1977)

. ---------------., Eusebius as Church Historian (Oxford/Clarendon, 1980)

. Grant, Robert M. Irenaeus [The Early Christian Fathers} (London: Routledge, 1997)

. Greer, Rowan, Broken Lights and Mended Lives: Theology and Common Life in the Early Church (Penn State, 1986)

. Hahn, Ferdinand, The Worship of the Early Church (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1973)

. Hamerton-Kelley, Robert G., The Gospel and the Sacred: Poetics of Violence in Mark (Fortress, 1994) [René Girard, foreword]

. Harrison, E., The Apostolic Church (Eerdmans, 1985)

.Hazlett, Ian, ed. Early Christianity: Origins and Evolution to A.D. 600. Nashville: Abingdon, 1991..

.Hennecke, Edgar, ed. New Testament Apocrypha, II. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Two vols. Vol. Two: Writings Relating to the Apostles; Apocalypses and Related Subjects. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1963.

.Hinson, Glenn. The Early Church : Origins to the Dawn of the Middle Ages. Nashville: Abingdon, 1996.

. Horsley, R. A., ed. Paul and Empire: Religion and Power in Roman Imperial Society (Trinity Press International, 1997)

. Hovenden, Gerald. Speaking in Tongues: The New Testament Evidence in Context, Journal of Pentecostal Theology Supplement Series, 22. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002.

.Hurtado, Larry, At the Origins of Christian Worship: The Context and Character of Earliest Christian Devotion (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999)

.Jaeger, Werner, Early Christianity and Greek Paideia (Harvard, l961)

. Jeffers, James S., Conflict at Rome: Social Order and Hierarchy in Early Christianity (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991)

. Johnson, Elizabeth A., Consider Jesus: Waves of Renewal in Christology (Crossroad, 1992)

. Jones, F. Stanley, ed. Which Mary?: The Marys of Early Christian Tradition. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2002.

. Kannengiesser, Charles, Early Christian Spirituality (Fortress, 1986)

. Kee, Howard Clark, Who Are the People of God? Early Christian Models of Community (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995)

. Kelly, J. N. D. Early Christian Doctrines. 5th ed. Continuum, 2000.

. Kiley, Mark, ed. Prayer from Alexander [the Great] to Constantine (London: Routledge, 1997)

. Klauck, Hans-Josef. The Religious Context of Early Christianity: A Guide to Graeco-Roman Religion. Translated by Mcneil, Brian. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2003.

. LaPorte, Jean, The Role of Women in Early Christianity (Edwin Mellen, 1982)

. Levison, Priscilla Pope and John R. Levison, Jesus in Global Contexts (Westminster John Knox, 1992)

. Lietzmann, Hans, The Beginnings of the Christianity Church, Vol. I (Meridian Books, 1958)

.---------------------. The Founding of the Church Universal, Vol. 2 (1956)

.---------------------, From Constantine to Julian, Vol. 3 (1956)

----------------------, The Era of the Church Fathers, Vol. 4 (1958)

. Lieu, Judith M. Neither Jew Nor Greek? Constructing Early Christianity. T&T Clark, 2003.

. Longenecker, Richard N., New Wine into Fresh Wineskins: Contextualizing the Early Christian Confessions (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999)

.Lyman, Rebecca, Early Christian Traditions (Cowley; Cambridge, Mass, 1999)

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